Offender Management in Custody model ‘simply not working’

A joint inspection led by HM Inspectorate of Probation, with HM Inspectorate of Prisons, has found Offender Management in Custody (OMiC) is falling well short of expected standards – calling for the model to be overhauled.

The report can be found via this link: A joint thematic inspection of Offender Management in Custody – pre-release (

OMiC was introduced by HM Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS), in 2018, to improve the support offered prisoners as they leave custody and are reintegrated back into the local community, so as to reduce their risk of reoffending.

But the inspection found root-to-branch issues with the model: it is too complex and inflexible, there is a lack of understanding and implementation, ineffective communication, and poor outcomes for prisoners.

Chief Inspector of Probation Justin Russell said: “The Offender Management in Custody model was an ambitious idea to better support prisoners back into the community. But however admirable its intentions, it is simply not working. We found staffing levels at crisis point in some prisons and probation regions, and levels of pre-release contact with prisoners that was sufficient to reduce re-offending in only a third of the cases we inspected. The model must be reviewed, and overhauled, at the earliest opportunity.

“Some individuals are leaving custody with no plans for where they will live, no identification documents and no access to financial support. Without access to these necessities, which we all take for granted, prison leavers are at risk of returning to crime and that is a threat to their local communities, the wider public, and a drain on resources.”

The main finding from this inspection was that OMiC is a lengthy and complex process, which neither prison nor probation officers or prisoners themselves fully understand how to implement.  Furthermore, it is a fixed model that cannot be changed to adapt to different types of prisons, and this is especially difficult for local establishments where they have a high turnover of prisoners.

On a more positive note, the inspection did find that the transfer of Senior Probation Officers into prisons has helped to boost communication and develop rehabilitative cultures. However, regular meetings between keyworkers and prisoners took place in only 34 per cent of the cases we inspected, with only a slightly higher number (36 per cent) deemed to be supervised effectively by their prison-based probation officer. Communication between prison and probation staff was adequate in just 13 per cent of cases.

Mr Russell continued: “We spoke to prison and probation staff, and many told us they are trying to make OMiC work, but it is over-engineered and not fit for purpose. It is a model that may have worked in theory but is proving almost impossible to put into practice. It is understandable that there are tensions between services, and no surprise they are struggling to communicate with each other, and prisoners, and that the basics of the model are not being delivered. It is down to HMPPS to put this right.”

Chief Inspector of Prisons, Charlie Taylor, said: “This extremely concerning report shows the extent that OMiC is failing to achieve the aims for which it was designed. Services for prisoners remain fractured and sentence progression is often hampered by a lack of staff in Offender Management Units while the key work scheme, that was meant to be an integral part of OMiC, is not providing anything like the support that was envisaged, with officers being diverted to more general wing work.”

“The removal of Covid-19 restrictions provides an opportunity to look at this again and strengthen the way prisons and probation work together to help individuals to transform their lives and to better protect the public. We have made several recommendations, including a fundamental review of the role of probation Prison Offender Managers, that, if followed, I hope will help both prisons and probation to better achieve this aim.”

A summary of the findings from this inspection are as follows:

  • We found shortfalls in public protection work, information sharing, and relationship building between prison staff, probation workers and prisoners.
  • There is a distinct culture of two organisations, one prison and one probation, and joint working at a strategic and operational level is hampered by prison groups and probation regions being based in different geographical areas.
  • Some keyworkers are providing valuable support, but the needs of prisoners in different types of establishment are not always catered for, and this causes problems on their release from prison.
  • Some prisoners were being released without resettlement services being in place, made worse by probation unification and Covid-19.
  • Successful implementation of OMiC requires a ‘rehabilitative culture’ in prisons, where there is space on prison wings for one-to-one interventions with prisoners to promote their rehabilitation, and this is not commonplace.
  • Staff shortages are high in some regions, and this undermines the delivery of a high-quality service and keywork does not join up with offender management often enough.


Notes to editor

  1. The report is available on HM Inspectorate of Probation website on 02 November 2022.
  2. The organisation responsible for OMiC is HMPPS. OMiC is operational in all 117 prisons in England and Wales.
  3. Contextual facts and statistics about OMiC are on page 6 and the recommendations from this inspection can be found on page 11.
  4. Fieldwork for this thematic inspection took place in April to June 2022.
  5. For media enquiries, please contact Head of Communications Diane Bramall (E-mail address)