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Cheshire 2016

Read more about Cheshire 2016

This is HMIC’s third PEEL (police effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy) assessment of Cheshire Constabulary. PEEL is designed to give the public information about how their local police force is performing in several important areas, in a way that is comparable both across England and Wales, and year on year. The assessment is updated throughout the year with our inspection findings and reports.

The extent to which the constabulary is effective at keeping people safe and reducing crime is good.

The extent to which the constabulary is efficient at keeping people safe and reducing crime is good.

The extent to which the constabulary is legitimate at keeping people safe and reducing crime is good.

The effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy inspection findings are published below. My overall assessment of Cheshire’s performance will be published in March 2017.

Michael Cunningham, Her Majesty’s Inspector of Constabulary

Contact Michael Cunningham


How effective is the force at keeping people safe and reducing crime?

Last updated 02/03/2017

Cheshire Constabulary has been assessed as good in respect of its effectiveness at keeping people safe and reducing crime. Our overall judgment this year is the same as last year, when we judged the constabulary to be good in respect of effectiveness.

The constabulary has maintained high standards of investigation and levels of service to vulnerable people, and it has improved its ability to tackle serious and organised crime. The constabulary’s approach to preventing crime remains good.

Cheshire Constabulary is committed to preventing crime and anti-social behaviour and making a difference for communities. Neighbourhood policing provides a link between communities and the police, and the constabulary is able to address emerging problems immediately. Preventative work and problem solving at a strategic, constabulary-wide level is effective, but at a neighbourhood level, officers need to understand the full principles of the problem-solving methodology.

Cheshire Constabulary carries out high-quality investigations. Crimes are investigated by officers who have the appropriate skills and supervisors play an active role in ensuring investigations are carried out to the highest standard. The constabulary works well with other agencies to reduce reoffending and to identify, investigate and bring to justice repeat and dangerous offenders.

Cheshire Constabulary is effective at identifying people who may be vulnerable through their age, disability, or because they have been subjected to repeated offences or are at high risk of abuse, and investigates crimes against vulnerable victims thoroughly. Officers across the organisation understand their role in ensuring safeguarding measures are appropriately applied. Greater attention is required when response officers assess risks in relation to vulnerable people. The constabulary can demonstrate a high level of support for victims of domestic abuse and makes good use of powers to place restrictions on perpetrators. The constabulary’s use of charges is among the highest for domestic abuse offences in England and Wales.

Cheshire Constabulary made positive progress towards addressing the areas for improvement in relation to serious and organised crime that were identified in last year’s report. The constabulary now has a greater understanding of the threat it is facing, informed by data from partner organisations. Neighbourhood officers understand the role they play in disrupting organised crime groups.

The constabulary has appropriate arrangements in place to ensure that it can respond to national threats.

View the five questions for effectiveness


How efficient is the force at keeping people safe and reducing crime?

Last updated 03/11/2016

Cheshire Constabulary has been assessed as good in respect of the efficiency with which it keeps people safe and reduces crime.

The constabulary has a good understanding of demand for its services and has processes in place to make informed choices about the level of resources and levels of service across departments. At a strategic level, workforce plans and financial plans are aligned, and the constabulary has some well-developed and ambitious plans for the future, centred on increased use of digital technology and ICT development.

Cheshire Constabulary has a comprehensive strategic planning framework, centred on its understanding of demand. It has used a priority-based budgeting approach for the last two financial years. This process has allowed the constabulary to develop a more sophisticated understanding of traditional demand, such as crime and incidents, as well as helping it to understand secondary demand, such as internal demand and demand from partner agencies.

The constabulary has a good understanding of the skills and capabilities of its workforce. The constabulary moved to a new operating model in July 2015, and there are concerns among the workforce about the resulting level of staffing and the high number of probationary officers in some teams. Some teams lack officers with specific skills, such as police drivers, needed to respond efficiently to daily demand. The constabulary is learning from the implementation of the new operating model. It is making changes in several areas, including creating a bank of people ready to apply to the constabulary to cover any potential high demand for more officers, prioritising training, and increasing the numbers of officers with specialist skills.

The constabulary has a comprehensive information and communications technology (ICT) strategy that is aligned with the workforce and service plans. It has an ambitious plan for making more use of digital technology, supported through the constabulary IT strategy. However, the constabulary has yet to make full use of mobile devices. The constabulary’s medium-term financial strategy sets the constabulary budget until 2019/20 and is based on credible and sensible assumptions. The strategy includes a summary of potential high-level savings, expected funding and use of reserves. The constabulary plans for the number of police officers, police staff and police community support officers to remain constant until 2019/20 and this is reflected in the medium-term financial strategy.

View the three questions for efficiency


How legitimate is the force at keeping people safe and reducing crime?

Last updated 08/12/2016

Cheshire Constabulary has been assessed as good in respect of the legitimacy with which it keeps people safe and reduces crime. Cheshire Constabulary is good in how it treats the people it serves with fairness and respect, its ethical and lawful behaviour, and the way it treats officers and staff internally with fairness and respect. The culture of the organisation reflects this through its fair and respectful treatment of people, and ethical, lawful approaches to integrity. The organisation’s fair and respectful treatment of its workforce and concern for its welfare and wellbeing also demonstrate this. Senior leaders actively promote the constabulary’s values, and staff are positive about the constabulary’s culture. However, it needs to improve some areas of vetting and its approach to managing the risk of abuse of authority for sexual gain by officers and staff. Our findings this year are consistent with last year’s findings, in which we also judged the constabulary to be good in respect of legitimacy.

Cheshire Constabulary has a clear vision and clear values which are consistent with the Code of Ethics. These have been well communicated and are understood throughout the organisation. The constabulary frequently seeks feedback and challenge, using a range of techniques including focus groups, challenge panels and surveys, and has carried out targeted work with communities which historically have had less trust and confidence in the police. The constabulary could do more to demonstrate to the public how it has responded to problems it has identified.

The constabulary understands the importance of vetting potential applicants and contract staff and has a vetting policy for recruits, including volunteers and other non-police staff, which is derived from and is in line with national guidance. The constabulary recognises that further work is needed on managing cases after the initial national security vetting to ensure it complies with national standards. Although there is awareness around the abuse of authority by officers and staff for sexual gain, the constabulary needs to provide further training for officers and staff in this area. It also needs to seek intelligence proactively on potential abuse of authority from a variety of sources, such as sex worker support organisations and victims of domestic abuse, through working with third sector and voluntary organisations such as Women’s Aid.

Staff and officers have a limited understanding of the action the constabulary has taken in response to recent surveys, and there is a perception that there is a lack of communication about the actions taken by the constabulary to improve the issues highlighted by such surveys. The constabulary is developing a comprehensive approach to understanding staff wellbeing; it sees maintaining wellbeing as essential to having a productive, well-engaged workforce. The commitment to wellbeing is demonstrated through the creation of a health and wellbeing centre, a health and wellbeing zone on the intranet, health and wellbeing conferences and road shows, and a newly launched employee assist programme.

The constabulary has recently introduced a new system for performance development review (PDR) following feedback from staff that the previous system was ineffective. While acknowledging that the new system is only three months old, we found much confusion among staff as to what was required. This is having a negative impact on the PDR completion rate, with no systems in place to ensure fair application of the process to assess personal performance across the workforce.

View the three questions for legitimacy

Other inspections

How well has the force performed in our other inspections?

In addition to the three core PEEL pillars, HMIC carries out inspections of a wide range of policing activity throughout the year. Some of these are conducted alongside the PEEL inspections (for instance, our 2016 leadership assessment); others are joint inspections.

Findings from these inspections are published separately to the main PEEL reports, but are taken into account when producing the rounded assessment of each force's performance.


Last updated 08/12/2016

Police leadership is crucial in enabling a force to be effective, efficient and legitimate. This inspection focused on how a force understands, develops and displays leadership through its organisational development.

Cheshire Constabulary has a good understanding of the capacity and capability of its leadership at all levels. The chief officer team has a strong commitment to leadership development. Over the last 18 months, the constabulary began to establish commonly understood leadership expectations. This resulted in the Leading the Way document, which sets out the constabulary’s leadership expectations. The constabulary uses a number of tools to review the impact of its leadership work. It was an early adopter of a new Investors in People wellbeing and leadership award, for which it was awarded silver in early 2016.

The constabulary collects a variety of intelligence to help it to identify leadership concerns and uses a number of approaches to develop its leaders, including master classes and external coaching for senior leaders. The constabulary is using various recruitment opportunities to increase the diversity of its workforce and its leadership. It also invests heavily in mentoring for prospective senior leaders, which it sees as an effective method for developing people to achieve their full potential and is a beneficial technique at certain stages of a person’s career.

The constabulary is keen to include external contributions in its thinking. Its leadership conferences always include external participation with a focus on bringing in learning from an outside perspective. The constabulary is also thinking more broadly about diversity, covering the more familiar concept of protected characteristics such as race, gender and sexuality, but also background and skills, for example.

View the three questions for leadership

Other reports

This section sets out the reports published by HMIC this year that help to better understand the performance of Cheshire Constabulary.

View other reports

Key facts

Force Area

905 square miles


1.04m people 5% local 10 yr change


74% frontline 78% national level
3.3 per 1000 population 3.6 national level
14% change in local workforce since 2010 15% national change since 2010

Victim-based crimes

0.05 per person 0.05 national level
Local 5 year trend National 5 year trend (no change)


47p per person per day local 55p per person per day national

Points of context provided by the force

Find out more about the area policed by this force.

Police and crime plan priorities

The police and crime plan, as well as other information about the PCC, can be found on their website.