Humberside PEEL 2015
More about this area
The force says...
Humberside Police covers an area of 1,356 square miles which centres on the Humber Estuary and has a population of 914,000. The area includes the city of Hull, the towns of Grimsby and Scunthorpe and the large rural area of the East Riding of Yorkshire. It is estimated that one million people a year travel to and from Europe by ferry via Hull and a further quarter of a million people travel on flights from Humberside airport. The Humber port infrastructure accounts for more than 15% of the UK overseas trade. The Humber Estuary is a centre for the offshore wind industry which has attracted significant investment.
The urban areas of the force suffer from high levels of deprivation (high unemployment, low educational attainment). Two of the local authorities are in the bottom quartile of the most deprived areas in the country.
Humberside has historically high levels of recorded crime. Whilst significant reductions have been made in the last 10 years (45% in all recorded crime since 2004/5), recorded crime levels continue to be higher than most other forces, particularly for violent crime.
The force has made savings of £46million since 2010 in response to government budget reductions which has resulted in a workforce reduction of 28%. The force has plans to save a further £22 million by 2020. A programme of improvement has introduced significant change both structurally, moving to a functional rather than geographic model and culturally to a focus upon threat risk and harm
Following feedback from HMIC, the public and staff, some refinements to the new model are being made. Significant progress has been made in the service delivered to the public as the force continues to strive to deliver an excellent service to local communities.
Disclaimer: the above statement has been prepared by Humberside Police. The views and information in it are not necessarily those of HMIC.
Humberside Police provides policing services to the East Riding of Yorkshire, Kingston-upon-Hull, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. The police force area covers 1,357 square miles with approximately 133 miles of coastline in the east of England. Although there are some more affluent areas, Humberside has a high level of poverty. Around 0.9 million people mainly live in the urban centres which include the city of Kingston upon Hull, as well as the towns of Bridlington, Scunthorpe and Grimsby. The resident population is increased by university students and the large numbers who visit or travel through the area each year. The transport infrastructure includes major sea ports.
England and Wales is made up of over 181,000 small areas known as census output areas (OAs). These have been defined by the Office for National Statistics to group together people with similar characteristics and to include, on average, 125 households. The size of the geographical area covered by each OA varies according to the population density in different parts of the country. The largest OA in England and Wales covers 20,166 hectares, and the smallest less than 0.02 hectares. A football pitch is approximately 0.75 of a hectare.
There are 1,967 OAs in Humberside with an average size of 116 hectares which is bigger than the national average of 87 hectares. While the majority (62 percent) of OAs in Humberside are relatively small at under 10 hectares, a smaller proportion (14 percent) are extremely large in size (over 100 hectares) indicating the mixture of urban and rural localities. The smallest OAs are concentrated in Hull and the numerous towns of the region with the largest spread across the more sparsely populated rural areas.
The advantage of analysis at output area level is that it supports a people-centred approach. Differences in the socio-economic characteristics of people who live in different OAs lead to different behaviours, including the use of public services. These differences are reflected in the information that is collected in large data sets such as the census, the Ordnance Survey (OS) point of interest data and other quasi-economic sources that have been used in this analysis.
HMIC has been working with the London School of Economics to use econometric techniques to statistically model and predict the level of reactive demands for police services in each OA in England and Wales. Using police incident data and several thousand characteristics (variables) drawn from the census data, OS point of interest data and other smaller data sets for each OA, it has been possible to predict the number of incidents for each OA and determine how challenging each OA is likely to be to police. We have also used the house prices from the Land Registry as a proxy indicator of wealth. Humberside has a median house price of £125,703 which is lower than the median of England and Wales (£254,549). Excluding the least expensive ten percent and the most expensive ten percent of house prices, there is a 100 percent difference between low and high prices within the force area, suggesting that there are areas of affluence as well as poverty.
The predicted number of incidents for each OA varies considerably. In Humberside, one percent of the OAs accounts for 14 percent of the predicted demands for police services – this is 0.8 percent of the total force area.
A concentration of predicted demands in a small number of OAs is a feature of every police force. We have designated these OAs (approximately 1,800 throughout England and Wales) as a very high challenge to police. These areas of very high challenge are characterised by social deprivation or a concentration of commercial premises (including licensed premises), and in some cases both.
- the proportion of OAs that are a very high challenge to police based on the predicted level of crime is higher than the national level of one percent;
- the proportion of OAs that are a very high challenge to police based on the predicted level of anti-social behaviour is higher than the national level of one percent; and
- the proportion of OAs that are very high challenge to police for the predicted level of emergency and priority calls for assistance is higher than the national level of one percent.
As an indication of the challenge for the police to reach citizens in all parts of Humberside we calculated the average travel time and distance from the central point of the force area to the centre of each of the 1,967 OAs. These calculations of distance and time are based on using the road network under normal driving conditions and speeds, and indicate the size of the area and the quality of its road network.
Humberside has 133 miles of motorways and trunk roads; the average travel distance of 18 miles (longest 42 miles and shortest 0.14 miles) and the average travel time of 31 minutes are in line with the respective national averages of 17 miles and 30 minutes. This demonstrates the size of Humberside and the nature of its roads.
While the concentration of demands in a small number of locations (covering a very small area) may be helpful in focusing resources, it is not the totality of demand. The provision of services extends beyond those areas that are a very high challenge to police and includes the least challenging and most remote areas. The challenge of providing services throughout Humberside is a function of many things including the size and topography of the area, the road network and how congested the roads are. These considerations influence how police resources are organised and managed – for example, where police officers are based and their working patterns.