About the data

Contents

Crime and Policing Comparator – General Points

Recorded crime and anti-social behaviour (ASB)

ASB Incidents

Quality of service

Force finances

Workforce numbers

Published sources of police-recorded crime statistics for England and Wales

Crime and Policing Comparator – General Points

Crime groupings

About Most Similar Groups

Population

City of London population

England and Wales

Trends over time

Timeliness of data

Crime Groupings

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has developed a new approach to presenting crime statistics to help ensure a clearer, more consistent picture on recorded crime for the public.

Previously, national organisations (i.e. ONS, HMIC, and the Home Office through the police.uk website) have taken slightly different approaches to the way that they categorise groups of crime types and to the labels they use to describe those categories.

Following a public consultation, a new crime “tree” (the crime types organised into a logic tree format, see link below) has been devised and this will now be used on the crime and policing comparator to present recorded crime and solved crime information.

This crime tree shows you how the crime categories are organised. (PDF, 9KB, new window)

View the full list of crime codes included in the Crime and Policing Comparator (Microsoft Excel, 23KB, new window)

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About Most Similar Groups

What are Most Similar Groups?

Most Similar Groups (MSGs) are groups of police force areas that have been found to be the most similar to each other based on an analysis of demographic, social and economic characteristics which relate to crime. With the exception of the City of London Police (for which it was not possible to identify any most similar forces), each force area has its own group of up to seven force areas to which it is ‘most similar’.

Why use Most Similar Groups?

MSGs are designed to help make fair and meaningful comparisons between forces. Forces operate in very different environments and face different challenges. It can be more meaningful to compare a force with other forces which share similar social and economic characteristics, than, for example, a neighbouring force. The development of the MSG approach involved stakeholders from the Home Office, Association of Chief Police Officers and HMIC, with advice from independent academics.

Most Similar Groups have been updated.

The updated Most Similar Groups for police forces have been constructed using more up-to-date data, taken mainly from the 2011 Census. The methodology used to create the new Most Similar Groups remains unchanged. It uses the same variables and statistical methods used to create earlier versions of the Most Similar Groups. Only the data used in the analysis to generate the Groups has been updated. Download the new Most Similar Groups (Microsoft Excel, 45KB, new window)

Why are the Most Similar Groups being updated now?

Most Similar Groups of forces are generated using data on a number of socio-demographic characteristics which are related to crime rates. Most of these data are taken from the Census. When the current methodology for creating Most Similar Groups was developed in 2003, and revised in 2007, it used data from the 2001 Census. The release of the latest data from the 2011 Census means we can now use these data to update the Most Similar Groups. Using 2011 Census data means that the revised Most Similar Groups much more accurately reflect the current socio-demographic characteristics of force areas.

How are Most Similar Groups calculated?

A number of social, economic and demographic variables are identified which are closely related to levels of crime. MSGs are determined by identifying the forces which are most similar on the basis of these factors. You can download a technical note with a more detailed explanation of how MSGs are formed (PDF, 193KB, new window).

Note that it is possible for force Y to be in force X’s most similar group without force X appearing in force Y’s group.

How are Most Similar Group averages calculated?

The average crime rate for an MSG is the sum of crime rates in a group divided by the total number of forces in the group. All of the most similar forces (including the force being compared) are included in calculating the average for the MSG. However, the MSG comparison charts also include an upper and a lower bound line. Due to rounding in some parts of the boundary calculations, there may be very slight variations between the data on the charts and in the supporting CSV files. Given the spread of crime rates for all forces in the group, the chosen force’s crime rate would be expected to lie between these lines. The technical note includes more information on how the upper and lower lines are calculated (PDF, 193KB, new window).

How to interpret charts that use Most Similar Group comparisons

It is more important to note where your force lies in relation to the red lines than its rank among similar forces. If the crime rate for your force lies between the red lines, it is normal for the group. If it lies outside the red lines, it is higher or lower than normal. See ‘How are Most Similar Group averages calculated’ above for more information.

The other forces in this chart are the most similar to the selected force (based on an assessment of their social and economic characteristics). However, the circumstances in these forces do still vary and can have an impact on the crime rates shown.

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Population

Most rates have been calculated per 1,000 or per head of population. Population figures used are mid-2013 population estimates, estimated by the Office for National Statistics and based on the 2011 Census. These give the number of people who are usually resident within each police force area. Some forces (such as West Midlands Police and the Metropolitan Police Service) have a large transient population, as they have more commuters and visitors entering their force area than leaving each day. Other forces (such as Essex Police) have negative transient populations, as they have more people commuting to or visiting other force areas than they have entering each day. Transient population figures have not been used for most forces as up-to-date estimates are not available, and because the effect of the transient population on crime rates is limited due to comparatively large resident populations.

However, we have used transient figures for the City of London. See ‘City of London population’ below for the reasons behind this.

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City of London population

For all forces other than the City of London Police, recorded crime rates have been calculated using mid-2013 resident population estimates. For the City of London Police, rates have been calculated using the transient population. As the resident population of the City of London force area is very low compared with its transient population, figures given per 1,000 residents would be unrepresentative of the true picture in the area. Therefore transient population figures have been used, to take into account the people commuting to and visiting the force area each day (as well as those leaving the force area each day). These figures have been sourced from the Department for Communities and Local Government, using results from the 2011 Census.

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England and Wales

These are the figures for England and Wales as a whole. They are calculated from England and Wales totals. For example, the sum of all crimes from all forces in England and Wales (excluding the British Transport Police) was divided by the total population of England and Wales to give the national all crime rate.

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Trends over time

Where possible, data has been provided for the last four years.

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Timeliness of data

The latest published data has been provided for all indicators. This varies by indicator: data for the year to December 2014 is available for recorded crime and victim satisfaction, data for the year to March 2014 is available for solved crimes and ASB; for other data sets the latest data covers projection estimates made for 2014/15. The period covered by the data is stated in each chart.

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Recorded crime and ASB

The Crime and Policing Comparator’s Recorded crime and ASB category includes all police-recorded crime, along with recorded ASB incidents.

All Crimes – source of the data

Crime codes

Crime tree

Crimes

Victim-based crime

Violence against the person

Homicide

Violence with injury

Violence without injury

Sexual offences

Rape

Other sexual offences

Violent crime and sexual offences (on police.uk)

Robbery

Robbery of business property

Robbery of personal property

Theft offences

Burglary

Burglary in a dwelling

Burglary in a building other than a dwelling

Vehicle offences

Theft from the person

Bicycle theft

Shoplifting

All other theft offences

Criminal damage and arson offences

Criminal damage

Arson

Other crimes against society

Drug offences

Trafficking of drugs

Possession of drugs

Public order offences

Miscellaneous crimes against society

Recording and reporting of fraud

All Crimes – source of the data

This site includes crime data based on police-recorded crimes at both national and police force area level. Crime is shown as ‘rate per 1,000 population’, which is equal to the number of police-recorded offences per 1,000 population resident in the area in question (with the exception of City of London, see City of London population for more information).

Crime rates are presented either:

  • as individual force crime rates over time compared with one other force (or with the England and Wales crime rate);
  • by showing the latest year’s crime rate in one force compared to all other forces in England and Wales; or
  • in that force’s Most Similar Group of forces.

When presenting the rate of recorded crime for an individual force over time, the four years ending December 2011, December 2012, December 2013 and December 2014 are shown. Force crime rates over time can either be compared to another force of your choice or to the England and Wales rate over the same period for the chosen crime type.

For Welsh police forces (Gwent, South Wales, North Wales and Dyfed-Powys) there is the ability to compare all four forces against each other.

When comparing the crime rates in one force to all other forces in England and Wales, data for the year ending December 2014 is shown. The England and Wales crime rate for the chosen crime type is also displayed for comparison.

Source of crime data: Home Office Statistics data returns from forces. These data are National Statistics.

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Crime codes

View the full list of crime codes included in the Crime and Policing Comparator (Microsoft Excel, 23KB, new window)

Get the free Excel viewer from Microsoft (external link)

This document also explains how the crime codes map to the crime tree.

Crime tree

This crime tree shows you how the crime categories are organised. (PDF, 9KB, new window)

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Crimes

All notifiable crimes recorded by the police (excluding fraud; see fraud section for more information on the recording of fraud). Notifiable crimes include all offences that could possibly be tried by jury (plus some less serious offences, such as minor theft that would not usually be tried by jury) together with a few additional, closely related offences, such as assault without injury.

Please Note: Offence classification ‘Making off without payment’, for example driving away from a petrol station without paying for fuel, was introduced as a separate theft classification in 2013/14. Before this, it was recorded under fraud offences. Data for ‘Making off without payment’ has now been provided for all years following a special request to forces and has been added into the historic recorded crime figures. In some cases, this data has been estimated where forces were unable to provide data.

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Victim-based crime

All police-recorded crimes where there is a direct victim. This victim could be an individual, an organisation or corporate body. This category includes violent crimes directed at a particular individual or individuals, sexual offences, robbery, theft offences (including burglary and vehicle offences), criminal damage and arson.

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Please Note: Offence classification ‘Making off without payment’, for example driving away from a petrol station without paying for fuel, was introduced as a separate theft classification in 2013/14. Before this, it was recorded under fraud offences. Data for ‘Making off without payment’ has now been provided for all years following a special request to forces and has been added into the historic recorded crime figures. In some cases, this data has been estimated where forces were unable to provide data.

Violence against the person

All police-recorded crimes of violence committed against a person, whether or not an injury has incurred. Possession of weapons and public order offences are excluded and recorded elsewhere.

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Homicide

Police-recorded crimes of murder, manslaughter, corporate manslaughter and infanticide, but excludes attempted murder and death by dangerous driving (which are part of violence with injury).

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Violence with injury

Police-recorded crimes of violence committed against a victim where an injury is inflicted. This category includes crimes ranging from serious assaults to those that cause minor injuries. It also includes causing death by dangerous driving and attempted murder but excludes murder, manslaughter and infanticide (which are recorded as homicide).

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Violence without injury

Police-recorded crimes of violence where there is no injury to the victim, including harassment, kidnapping, threats to kill and assaults without injury (common assault). This excludes public order and possession of weapons offences.

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Sexual offences

All police-recorded sexual offences, including sexual or indecent assault, sexual grooming, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and rape. This category excludes prostitution-related offences (unless involving children), which are included in ‘other miscellaneous crimes against society’.

It should be noted that due to the complex nature of these crimes, particularly rape, care should be taken when comparing crime rates across forces as there are many factors which can affect the level of recorded crime. For example, victims being encouraged to report crimes or cultural differences.

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Rape

Police-recorded crimes of rape and attempted rape, against males, females, adults and children.

It should be noted that due to the complex nature of rape, care should be taken when comparing crime rates across forces as there are many factors which can affect the level of recorded crime. For example, victims being encouraged to report crimes or cultural differences.

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Other sexual offences

Police-recorded sexual offences (excluding rape). This group of crimes includes sexual or indecent assault, sexual grooming and trafficking for sexual exploitation but excludes prostitution-related offences (unless involving children), which are included in other miscellaneous crimes against society.

It should be noted that due to the complex nature of these crimes, care should be taken when comparing crime rates across forces as there are many factors which can affect the level of recorded crime. For example, victims being encouraged to report crimes or cultural differences.

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Violent crime and sexual offences (on police.uk)

The data shown in the ‘violent crime and sexual offences’ category on police.uk combines the ‘violence against the person’ and the ‘sexual offences’ categories used here in the Crime and Policing Comparator. This is to help protect victim confidentiality, since the police.uk maps are showing offences at street level. Because the Crime and Policing Comparator is showing force-level data, we are able to separate out the two categories further.

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Robbery

All police-recorded crimes of robbery, where the offender has used force (or threatened to do so) in order to steal something. This includes stealing both from an individual (robbery of personal property) and from a business (robbery of business property). This category also includes assaults with attempt to commit a robbery.

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Robbery of personal property

This category shows police-recorded crimes where the offender has used force (or threatened to do so) in stealing something from an individual. This category also includes assaults with an attempt to commit a robbery.

Note that where no force is used or threatened, in the process of stealing something, the crime would be recorded as a theft from the person (which is categorised separately).

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Robbery of business property

This category shows police-recorded crimes where the offender has used force (or threatened to do so) in order to steal something from a business or other organisation, e.g. a bank hold-up. This category also includes assaults with an attempt to commit a robbery.

This is not the same as shoplifting, where items are stolen from the public area of a shop or stall, or burglary in a building other than a dwelling, which is recorded where a trespasser has entered premises to steal without the use or threat of force.

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Theft offences

This category shows all police-recorded crimes where an offender steals or attempts to steal something, except for robbery (where threat of or actual violence was used to steal from a person or business) which is categorised separately. The theft can be from an individual (e.g. if someone has their wallet stolen by a pick-pocket) or from an organisation (e.g. shoplifting).This category also includes attempted crimes.

Please Note: Offence classification ‘Making off without payment’, for example driving away from a petrol station without paying for fuel, was introduced as a separate theft classification in 2013/14. Before this, it was recorded under fraud offences. Data for ‘Making off without payment’ has now been provided for all years following a special request to forces and has been added into the historic recorded crime figures. In some cases, this data has been estimated where forces were unable to provide data.

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Burglary

This category shows police-recorded crimes where a trespasser has entered a building to steal or commit damage. This includes stealing from a home (burglary in a dwelling) and from premises (burglary in a building other than a dwelling). This category also includes attempted burglaries.

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Burglary in a dwelling

This category shows police-recorded crimes where a trespasser has entered a domestic building (e.g. a habitable house or garage with an entrance to a house) to steal or commit damage. This category also includes attempted burglaries.

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Burglary in a building other than a dwelling

This category shows police-recorded crimes where a trespasser has entered a non-domestic building (e.g. a shop, office, shed or garage that does not have an entrance to a home) to steal or commit damage. This is not the same as business robbery, which is recorded where the offender has used force (or threatened to do so) in order to steal. This category also includes attempted burglaries.

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Vehicle offences

This category shows police-recorded crimes where the offender has taken, stolen from or tampered with a vehicle. This category also includes attempted crimes.

Unauthorised taking of a motor vehicle involves someone taking a motor vehicle (either for their own use or another’s use) without having the consent of the owner or other lawful authority. A person has committed a theft of a motor vehicle if he or she dishonestly takes a motor vehicle belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of it.

Theft from a vehicle includes someone taking something from a vehicle either by breaking into the vehicle or by reaching in and taking something when a vehicle is stationary (i.e. at traffic lights).

Interference with a motor vehicle involves a person interfering with a motor vehicle or trailer, or with anything carried in or on it, with the intention of committing theft of/from the motor vehicle or trailer (or part of it), or taking and driving the vehicle away without consent. It also includes offences where a person gets onto a vehicle on a road or parking place provided by the local authority or tampers with the brakes or other part of its mechanism. Where there is evidence to show intent to permanently deprive the owner of the vehicle, an offence of attempted theft of a motor vehicle is recorded; where this is not the case and the vehicle has been searched, an offence of attempted theft from a motor vehicle is recorded.

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Theft from the person

This category shows police-recorded crimes where the offender has stolen property that was in the physical possession of the victim, this can include some degree of force towards the property but not the victim (e.g. grabbing a handbag). This is not the same as robbery where violence, or the threat of violence, is used against the person in the process of stealing something.

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Bicycle theft

This category shows police-recorded crimes where the offender has stolen a pedal cycle or taken (and later discarded) a pedal cycle without consent.

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Shoplifting

Police-recorded crimes where the offender has stolen property from a public area of a shop (as opposed to, for instance, the stock room) or a market stall, other than by employees.

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All other theft offences

Police-recorded crimes of theft which do not fit into the other (previous) theft categories, including theft of mail, theft by an employee, theft of property not in the physical possession of the owner (i.e. a phone on a table), making off without payment and theft in a house (where entry is not gained by trespassing). It also includes some types of forgery and possession, supplying or making things for use in fraud. This excludes burglary, robbery, vehicle crime, handling stolen goods and shoplifting.

Please Note: Offence classification ‘Making off without payment’, for example driving away from a petrol station without paying for fuel, was introduced as a separate theft classification in 2013/14. Before this, it was recorded under fraud offences. Data for ‘Making off without payment’ has now been provided for all years following a special request to forces and has been added into the historic recorded crime figures. In some cases, this data has been estimated where forces were unable to provide data.

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Criminal damage and arson offences

All police-recorded crimes where the offender has intentionally damaged or destroyed something, including those crimes with a racial or religious motivation. This includes both criminal damage and arson offences.

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Criminal damage

All police-recorded crimes where the offender has damaged or destroyed something, including those crimes with a racial or religious motivation but excludes arson offences (where fire is used). This includes offences that endanger life.

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Arson

All police-recorded crimes where the offender has intentionally damaged or destroyed something with the use of fire. This includes offences that endanger life.

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Other crimes against society

All police-recorded crimes where there are no direct individual victims. This includes public disorder, drug offences, possession of weapons and other items, handling stolen goods and other miscellaneous offences committed against the state.

The rates for some crime types within this category could be increased by proactive police activity, for example searching people and finding them in possession of drugs or weapons.

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Drug offences

All police-recorded drug crimes. This includes possessing, making, selling, importing and exporting illegal or controlled drugs.

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down drug offences, and so be searching and catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

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Trafficking of drugs

All police-recorded crimes where the offender has trafficked drugs, this includes selling, making, importing and exporting illegal or controlled drugs.

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down drug offences, and so be searching and catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

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Possession of drugs

All police-recorded crimes where the offender has been caught using or carrying illegal drugs for his or her personal use, and other (non-trafficking) drug offences such as unlawfully prescribing drugs and unlawfully selling intoxicating substances (e.g. solvents).

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down drug offences, and so be searching and catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

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Possession of weapons offences

This category shows police-recorded crimes where the offender has been caught in the possession of weapons such as firearms or a blade without an appropriate license or legitimate reason.

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down the numbers of weapons on the streets, and so be searching and catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

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Public order offences

This category shows police-recorded public order crimes, including rioting, violent disorder and causing public fear, alarm or distress.

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Miscellaneous crimes against society

This category consists of police-recorded non victim-based miscellaneous crimes such as perverting the course of justice, dangerous driving (not including death by dangerous driving), bail offences, health and safety offences, perjury and prostitution-related offences (not involving children, these are part of sexual offences).

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down dangerous driving offences, and so be catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

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Recording and reporting of fraud

Changes to the operational arrangements for the reporting and recording of fraud offences mean that, from April 2013, many fraud offences previously recorded by police forces will be recorded centrally by Action Fraud, a public facing national reporting centre.

The ONS consultation on the presentation of police recorded crime classifications has led to ‘Fraud offences’ being a separate standalone category in addition to ‘Victim-based crime’ and ‘Other crimes against society’.

Many incidents are reported directly to the bank or financial institution concerned, who may investigate the matter themselves. They generally only refer on to the police those cases where direct action can then be taken to pursue an offender. As a result, the police-recorded crime for this type of offence represents only part of the picture.

ASB Incidents

ASB Incidents – data sources and limitations

ASB Incidents – definition

ASB Incidents – time period

ASB Incidents – data sources and limitations

All police forces record incidents of ASB reported to them in accordance with the provisions of the National Standard for Incident Recording (NSIR). While incidents are recorded under NSIR in accordance with the same ‘victim focused’ approach that applies for recorded crime, these figures are not accredited National Statistics and are not subject to the same level of quality assurance as the main recorded crime collection. Incident counts should be interpreted as incidents recorded by the police, rather than reflecting the true level of victimisation. Other agencies also deal with anti-social behaviour incidents (for example, local authorities and social landlords); incidents reported to these agencies will not generally be included in police figures.

In 2011/12 a new framework of definitions for categorising incidents of anti-social behaviour recorded by the police was introduced. The new framework divides ASB incidents into three categories – nuisance, personal, and environmental – and places further emphasis on a risk based victim-based approach to recording ASB. The introduction of this new classification framework means that ASB incident data reported from 2011/12 are not comparable with previous years.

These data are now published annually by the Office for National Statistics. They are outside the scope of National Statistics.

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ASB Incidents – definition

This is the number of anti-social behaviour incidents per 1,000 population, as recorded by the police.

Anti-social behaviour is made up of:

  • Personal ASB
  • Nuisance ASB
  • Environmental ASB

Personal ASB

‘Personal’ is designed to identify ASB incidents that are deliberately targeted at or are aimed at having an impact on a particular individual or specific group rather than the community at large.

It includes incidents that cause concern, stress, disquiet or irritation through to incidents which have a serious adverse impact on someone’s quality of life. At one extreme of the spectrum it includes minor annoyance; at the other end it could result in risk of harm, deterioration of health and disruption of mental or emotional well-being, resulting in an inability to carry out normal day to day activities through fear and intimidation.

This category should not include random acts of ASB which are not clearly aimed at a specific individual: e.g. the random throwing of flour or eggs at Halloween or the throwing of snowballs providing that no harm was intended or caused nor notifiable crime committed.

Care is needed to ensure that ‘personal’ incidents that amount to notifiable crimes such as harassment, common assault or criminal damage are converted into crime reports within the remit of NCRS.

Nuisance ASB

‘Nuisance’ captures those incidents where an individual or group causes trouble, annoyance, inconvenience, offence or suffering to people in the local community in general rather than being deliberately targeted at specific individuals or groups.

It includes incidents where behaviour goes beyond the conventional bounds of acceptability and impacts on the quality of life of individuals and communities. Just as individuals will have differing expectations and levels of tolerance so will communities have different ideas about what goes beyond tolerable or acceptable behaviour within their communities.

Care is needed to ensure that ‘nuisance’ incidents that amount to notifiable crimes such as harassment, common assault or criminal damage are converted into crime reports within the remit of NCRS.

Environmental ASB

‘Environmental’ deals with the interface between people and places. It includes incidents and inconsiderate actions which have an impact on the surroundings including the natural, built and social environments. This category is about encouraging reasonable behaviour whilst managing and protecting the various environments so that people can enjoy their own private spaces as well as shared or public spaces.

People’s physical settings and surroundings are known to impact positively or negatively on mood and sense of well-being and a perception that nobody cares about the quality of a particular environment can cause those affected by that environment to feel undervalued or ignored. Public spaces change over time as a result of physical effects caused, for example, by building but the environment can also change as a result of the people using or misusing that space.

Incidents, which do not amount to notifiable crime, that should be recorded as ASB Environmental will include amongst other environmental offences, visual pollution and spatial abuse: littering, dog fouling, unlawfully abandoned vehicles, unlawfully exposing vehicles for sale on a road, light pollution and noise from private and licensed premises.

Care is needed to ensure that ‘environmental’ incidents that amount to notifiable crimes such as criminal damage are converted into crime reports within the remit of NCRS.

Anti-social behaviour incidents are not recorded as crimes and are therefore not included in the all crime figures.

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ASB Incidents – time period

Three years’ data is presented for the years ending March 2012, March 2013 and year ending March 2014.

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Quality of service

The Crime and Policing Comparator’s Quality of service category includes all solved crimes data and also a victim satisfaction indicator.

Victim satisfaction – source of the data

Victim satisfaction – time period

Victim satisfaction – definition

Victim satisfaction – England and Wales figures

Victim satisfaction – confidence interval

Victim satisfaction – statistical significance

Solved crimes – source of the data

Restorative Justice and Community Resolutions

Crimes solved

Victim-based crimes solved

Violence against the person crimes solved

Homicide crimes solved

Violence with injury crimes solved

Violence without injury crimes solved

Sexual offences solved

Rape crimes solved

Other sexual offences solved

Robbery crimes solved

Robbery of personal property crimes solved

Robbery of business property crimes solved

Theft offences solved

Burglary crimes solved

Burglary in a dwelling crimes solved

Burglary in a building other than an dwelling crimes solved

Vehicle offences solved

Theft from the person offences solved

Bicycle theft offences solved

Shoplifting crimes solved

All other theft offences solved

Criminal damage and arson offences solved

Criminal damage offences solved

Arson offences solved

Other crimes against society solved

Drug offences solved

Trafficking of drugs crimes solved

Possession of drugs crimes solved

Possession of weapons crimes solved

Public order offences solved

Miscellaneous crimes against society solved

Victim Satisfaction – source of the data

These data come from local victim surveys conducted by all police forces provided to the Home Office. The surveys are designed to produce results as an average over a 12-month period, updated on a quarterly basis. It should be noted that, owing to circumstances that sometimes result in delays to the return of victim satisfaction data, there are times when a result for a 12-month period is actually an average of just three quarters of data, rather than the full four.

These data are outside the scope of National Statistics.

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Victim Satisfaction – time period

Data have been provided for the years ending December 2011, December 2012, December 2013 and December 2014.

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Victim Satisfaction – definition

The local victim survey data provided in the Crime and Policing Comparator includes the views of surveyed victims who have had contact with the police in connection with burglary, vehicle crime and violent crime. The figures represent the percentage of these victims who are satisfied (fairly, very or completely satisfied) with the overall service provided by the police (whole experience).

Further breakdowns of these data are available to download from the data file in our data section. These include:

  • making contact with the police (ease of contact);
  • action taken by the police (actions);
  • being kept informed of progress (follow-up); and
  • treatment by staff (treatment).

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Victim satisfaction – England and Wales figures

The percentage of victims who are satisfied with the overall service provided by the police for England and Wales has been calculated by taking the total number of victims in England and Wales who are satisfied with their experience of the police and dividing by the total number of respondents in England and Wales for each of the crime types.

Confidence intervals for England and Wales have been calculated in the same way as they have for individual forces.

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Victim satisfaction – confidence interval

As the victim satisfaction data is derived from sample surveys, the percentage of victims satisfied figures are estimates only, and confidence intervals apply. A 95% confidence interval has been used to show the estimated range of values likely to include the percentage of victims who are satisfied with their overall experience of the police if all the victims of burglary, vehicle crime and violent crime were asked the same question.

For example, if a large proportion of the victims are sampled then the percentage of victims who are satisfied will have a small confidence interval, as we are more certain the percentage of surveyed victims who are satisfied reflects the views of all the victims. If a small proportion of the victims are sampled then the percentage of victims who are satisfied will have a large confidence interval, as we are less certain that the percentage of surveyed victims who are satisfied reflects the views of all the victims.

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Victim satisfaction – statistical significance

As the victim satisfaction data is derived from sample surveys, the percentage of victims satisfied figures are estimates only. As such, not all differences between the percentage of victims who are satisfied are statistically significant.

A statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level means that the difference is unlikely to have occurred by chance.

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Solved crimes – source of the data

‘Solved crimes’ (also known as the ‘sanction detection rate’) on this site are presented as the ratio of sanction detections to police-recorded crimes for a given period.

A sanction detection is counted as any police-recorded crime where a suspect has been identified and notified as being responsible for committing that crime and what the full implications of this are, and has received an official sanction. Official sanctions included are: charges, cautions, penalty notices, offences taken into consideration (TICs) and cannabis warnings.

A TIC is where an offender admits the crime by way of a Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) compliant interview, and asks for it to be taken into consideration by the court. Offences taken into consideration must be similar to – but not more serious than – the offence charged. The offender must be appearing before court to have the matters taken into consideration. TICs can include crimes that have not previously been recorded, providing the victim confirms that the offence occurred.

Note: The solved crime rate (or sanction detection rate) is calculated using Sanction Detections and Recorded Crimes covering the same period. Due to the lag in time between a crime being recorded and being detected, it may be possible for the solved crime rate to be greater than 100%. This is more likely where lots of detections occur at once, or where solved rates are high in cases where there is usually a detection at the point the crime is recorded (e.g. drug possession or homicide).

These data are National Statistics.

Solved crime rates are presented either as individual force rates over time compared with one other force (or with the solved crime rate for England and Wales), or by showing the latest year’s rate in one force compared to all other forces in England and Wales.

When presenting the rates for an individual force over time, the four years ending March 2011, March 2012, March 2013 and March 2014 are shown. Note that detections data is not published as frequently as crime data, so the detections data charts do not use the same time periods as the crime data charts. When comparing the solved rate in one force to all other forces in England and Wales the year ending March 2014 is shown. The England and Wales rate for the chosen crime type is also displayed for comparison.

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Restorative Justice and Community Resolutions

Along with charges, cautions, fixed penalty notices, TICs and cannabis warnings, a number of forces also use restorative justice or community resolutions as a crime disposal type, for less serious offences, in place of sanction detections.

Restorative Justice and Community Resolutions are ways of dealing with incidents outside of the formal criminal justice system through focussing on the needs of the victim and offenders, as well as the wider community. Victims play an active role in the process and offenders are encouraged to take responsibility for their actions (for example through apologising face to face, returning stolen money or repairing damage caused). This offers victims a more immediate and proportionate response and helps to prevent future offending, as well as saving time and money.

The Home Office does not currently collect these data on a mandatory basis and only requires that a Chief Constable has a local policy in place. For this reason these data are not directly comparable between forces and are not shown on the Crime and Policing Comparator.

However, it is possible for those forces that use restorative justice/community resolutions in place of official sanctions, that their sanction detection rates could be adversely affected.

HMIC is aware that there is currently a consultation being lead by the Home Office regarding the use of restorative justice among other solved outcomes which will be reflected in the 2014/15 publication.

The Home Office published information on Restorative Justice data in its July 2014 ‘Crimes Detected in England and Wales’ publication (covering the financial year ending 31 March 2014).

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Crimes solved

This is the proportion of all notifiable crimes solved by the police (excluding fraud. See fraud section for more information on the recording of fraud). Notifiable crimes include all offences that could possibly be tried by jury (plus some less serious offences, such as minor theft that would not usually be tried by jury) together with a few additional, closely related offences, such as assault without injury.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Victim-based crimes solved

This is the proportion of all police-recorded crimes solved where there is a direct victim. This victim could be an individual, an organisation or corporate body. This category includes violent crimes directed at a particular individual or individuals, sexual offences, robbery, theft offences, criminal damage and arson.

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Violence against the person offences solved

This is the proportion of all police-recorded violence against the person offences solved, this is where violence has been committed against a person whether or not an injury has incurred. Possession of weapons and public order offences are excluded and recorded elsewhere.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Homicide offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded homicide offences solved, this includes the crimes of murder, manslaughter, corporate manslaughter and infanticide, but excludes attempted murder and death by dangerous driving (which are part of violence with injury).

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

Due to the small numbers of recorded homicides and the possible delays in finding the offender, homicide solved rates may be appear higher or lower in comparison to other offence groups, due to this it is possible to have a solved rate of over 100%.

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Violence with injury offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded crimes of violence with injury offences solved; this is where a violent offence committed against a victim where an injury is inflicted. This category includes crimes ranging from serious assaults to those that cause minor injuries. It also includes causing death by dangerous driving but excludes murder, manslaughter and infanticide (which are recorded as homicide)

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Violence without injury offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded crimes of violence without injury offences solved, this is where a violent offence is committed where there is no physical injury is caused to the victim. This includes harassment, kidnapping, threats to kill and assaults without injury (common assault). This excludes public order and possession offences.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Sexual offences solved

This is the proportion of all police-recorded sexual offences solved, including sexual or indecent assault, sexual grooming, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and rape. This category excludes prostitution-related offences (unless involving children), which are included in ‘other miscellaneous crimes against society’.

It should be noted that due to the complex nature of these crimes, particularly rape, care should be taken when comparing solved rates across forces as there are many factors which can affect the level of recorded crime and therefore the solved crimes. For example, victims being encouraged to report crimes or cultural differences.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Rape offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded rape and attempted rape offences solved, against males, females, adults and children.

It should be noted that due to the complex nature of rape, care should be taken when comparing crime rates across forces as there are many factors which can affect the level of recorded crime. For example, victims being encouraged to report crimes or cultural differences.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Other sexual offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded other sexual offences solved. This group of crimes includes sexual or indecent assault, sexual grooming and trafficking for sexual exploitation but excludes prostitution-related offences (unless involving children), which are included in other miscellaneous crimes against society.

It should be noted that due to the complex nature of these crimes, care should be taken when comparing crime rates across forces as there are many factors which can affect the level of recorded crime. For example, victims being encouraged to report crimes or cultural differences.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Robbery offences solved

This is the proportion of all police-recorded robbery offences solved, where the offender has used force (or threatened to do so) in order to steal something. This includes stealing both from an individual (robbery of personal property) and from a business (robbery of business property). This category also includes assaults with attempt to commit a robbery.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Robbery of personal property offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded robbery of personal property offences solved, where the offender has used force (or threatened to do so) in stealing something from an individual solved. This category also includes assaults with an attempt to commit a robbery.

Note that where no force is used or threatened, in the process of stealing something, the crime would be recorded as a theft from the person (which is categorised separately).

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Robbery of business property offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded robbery of business property offences solved, where the offender has used force (or threatened to do so) in order to steal something from a business or other organisation, e.g. a bank hold-up. This category also includes assaults with an attempt to commit a robbery.

This is not the same as shoplifting, where items are stolen from the public area of a shop or stall, or burglary in a building other than a dwelling, which is recorded where a trespasser has entered premises to steal without the use or threat of force.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Theft offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded theft offences solved this is where an offender steals or attempts to steal something, except for robbery (where threat of or actual violence was used to steal from a person or business) which is categorised separately. The theft can be from an individual (e.g. if someone has their wallet stolen by a pick-pocket) or from an organisation (e.g. shoplifting).This category also includes attempted crimes.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Burglary offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded burglary offences solved, this is where a trespasser has entered a building to steal or commit damage. This includes stealing from a home (burglary in a dwelling) and from premises (burglary in a building other than a dwelling). This category also includes attempted burglaries.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Burglary in a dwelling offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded burglary in a dwelling offences solved, this is where a trespasser has entered a domestic building (e.g. a habitable house or garage with an entrance to a house) to steal or commit damage. This category also includes attempted burglaries.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Burglary in a building other than a dwelling offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded burglary in a building other than a dwelling offences solved, this is where a trespasser has entered a non-domestic building (e.g. a shop, office, shed or garage that does not have an entrance to a home) to steal or commit damage. This is not the same as business robbery, which is recorded where the offender has used force (or threatened to do so) in order to steal. This category also includes attempted burglaries.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Vehicle offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded vehicle offences solved, this is where an offender has taken, stolen from or tampered with a vehicle. This category also includes attempted crimes.

Unauthorised taking of a motor vehicle involves someone taking a motor vehicle (either for their own use or another’s use) without having the consent of the owner or other lawful authority. A person has committed a theft of a motor vehicle if he or she dishonestly takes a motor vehicle belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the owner of it.

Theft from a vehicle includes someone taking something from a vehicle either by breaking into the vehicle or by reaching in and taking something when a vehicle is stationary (i.e. at traffic lights).

Interference with a motor vehicle involves a person interfering with a motor vehicle or trailer, or with anything carried in or on it, with the intention of committing theft of/from the motor vehicle or trailer (or part of it), or taking and driving the vehicle away without consent. It also includes offences where a person gets onto a vehicle on a road or parking place provided by the local authority or tampers with the brakes or other part of its mechanism. Where there is evidence to show intent to permanently deprive the owner of the vehicle, an offence of attempted theft of a motor vehicle is recorded; where this is not the case and the vehicle has been searched, an offence of attempted theft from a motor vehicle is recorded.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Theft from the person offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded theft from person offences solved, this is where an offender has stolen property that was in the physical possession of the victim, this can include some degree of force towards the property but not the victim (e.g. grabbing a handbag). This is not the same as robbery where violence, or the threat of violence, is used against the person in the process of stealing something.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Bicycle theft offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded bicycle thefts offences solved, this is where the offender has stolen a pedal cycle or taken a pedal cycle without consent.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Shoplifting offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded shoplifting offences solved, this is where the offender has stolen property from a public area of a shop (as opposed to, for instance, the stock room) or a market stall, other than by employees.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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All other theft offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded other theft offences solved, this includes theft offences which do not fit into the other theft categories, including theft of mail, theft by an employee, making off without payment and theft in a house (where entry is not gained by trespassing). It also includes some types of forgery and possession, supplying or making things for use in fraud. This excludes burglary, robbery, vehicle crime, handling stolen goods and shoplifting.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Criminal damage and arson offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded criminal damage and arson offences solved, this is where the offender has intentionally damaged or destroyed something. This includes both criminal damage and arson offences.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Criminal damage offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded criminal damage offences solved, this is where the offender has damaged or destroyed something, but excludes arson offences (where fire is used). This includes offences that endanger life.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Arson offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded arson offences solved, this is where the offender has intentionally damaged or destroyed something with the use of fire. This includes offences that endanger life.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Other crimes against society solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded other crimes against society solved, this is where there are no direct individual victims. This includes public disorder, drug offences, possession of weapons and other items, handling stolen goods and other miscellaneous offences committed against the state.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

The solved crime rates for this crime type can be higher than for other crime types because there is often a detection at the point the crime is recorded (e.g. in drug possession offences).

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Drug offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded drug offences solved. This includes possessing, making, selling, importing and exporting illegal or controlled drugs.

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down drug offences, and so be searching and catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

The solved crime rates for this crime type can be higher than for other crime types because there is often a detection at the point the crime is recorded

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Trafficking of drugs offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded trafficking of drug offences solved, where the offender has trafficked drugs, this includes selling, making, importing and exporting illegal or controlled drugs.

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down drug offences, and so be searching and catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

The solved crime rates for this crime type can be higher than for other crime types because there is often a detection at the point the crime is recorded

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Possession of drugs offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded possession of drug offences solved, this is where the offender has been caught using or carrying illegal drugs for his or her personal use, and other (non-trafficking) drug offences such as unlawfully prescribing drugs and unlawfully selling intoxicating substances (e.g. solvents).

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down drug offences, and so be searching and catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

The solved crime rates for this crime type can be higher than for other crime types because there is often a detection at the point the crime is recorded

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Possession of weapons offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded possession of weapons offences solved, this is where the offender has been caught in the possession of weapons such as firearms or a blade without an appropriate license or legitimate reason.

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down the numbers of weapons on the streets, and so be searching and catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

The solved crime rates for this crime type can be higher than for other crime types because there is often a detection at the point the crime is recorded

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Public order offences solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded public order offences solved, this includes rioting, violent disorder and causing public fear, alarm or distress.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Miscellaneous crimes against society solved

This is the proportion of police-recorded miscellaneous crimes against society solved, this category consists of police-recorded non victim-based miscellaneous crimes such as perverting the course of justice, dangerous driving (not including death by dangerous driving), bail offences, health and safety offences, perjury and prostitution-related offences (not involving children, these are part of sexual offences).

The level of recorded crime for this category can be an indication of how police are enforcing these types of crime compared with other forces, but not necessarily an indication of the actual crime levels. For instance, a force might have set a priority to bring down dangerous driving offences, and so be catching more people, and therefore recording more crimes.

Solved crimes show the ratio between the number of police-recorded crimes where the offender has received a formal sanction of some kind, and the total number of crimes recorded in the time period covered. Formal sanctions (punishments) include things like being charged, fined, or cautioned, but do not include solved crimes where less formal routes have been used – such as restorative justice or a community resolution.

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Force finances

The Crime and Policing Comparator’s Force finances category includes force costs and staff pay costs.

Costs – source of the data

Costs – data quality

Force cost – definition

Pay cost – definition

Pay cost, officer pay cost, PCSO pay cost and police staff pay cost – definition

Income – definition

Non-pay cost definition

Officer overtime – definition

Adjusted force cost – definition

Adjusted force cost – source of the data

Data anomalies

Costs – source of the data

Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA) Police Objective Analysis (POA) estimates for 2014/15, estimates for 2013/14, estimates for 2012/13 and estimates for 2011/12.

POA data is a live data source that is continuously updated. The data used within the Crime and Policing Comparator have been taken from the database frozen in mid-October 2014. Forces had the opportunity to check and re-submit their data before this freeze.

These data are outside the scope of National Statistics.

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Costs – data quality

2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15 estimates data have been subject to a three-stage checking process. First, forces are required to reconcile their figures to their accounts; second, HMIC and CIPFA identify statistical outliers and highlight these to forces for amendment; and lastly, draft figures are provided to forces so that they can check for any unusual figures. Once these amendments are submitted, the data base is frozen and that data is used.

In circumstances where a force has submitted incorrect or insufficient data, that data may not be included. Similarly, any data amendments made by forces after the update deadline may not be included – for the most up-to-date data, please see http://www.cipfa.org

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Force cost – definition

Net revenue expenditure is defined as total expenditure (gross revenue expenditure) minus earned income.

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Pay cost – definition

All pay costs do not include the reimbursement of expenses through pay to special constables.

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Pay cost, officer pay cost, PCSO pay cost and police staff pay cost – definition

Officer, PCSO and police staff pay for current budgeted staff includes overtime costs. Some of this may be paid for by income earned by the force; for example, overtime pay for policing football matches.

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Income – definition

This is earned income. Examples of earned income are the policing of a football match or an airport, and for services provided to other forces.

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Non-pay cost – definition

Non-pay costs are all costs other than pay and overtime costs. These include premises and transport costs, supplies and services, third party payments, capital financing and temporary and agency costs.

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Officer overtime – definition

Officer overtime is calculated as a percentage of total officer pay (ie salaries plus overtime costs).

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Adjusted force cost – definition

To allow fairer comparison between the cost of forces, the adjusted cost used here shows the total cost of the force (net revenue expenditure) per head of population, adjusted for several factors:

  • National policing: The amount of money that the force spends on national policing has been deducted.
  • Officer pay: London and South East forces pay extra allowances, or have different pay structures to the rest of England and Wales. To take account of this, officer salaries for each force have been compared with the national pay scales (without allowances), and deducted pro rata. The salaries are calculated by taking the mid-point of the bottom pay point and top pay point for constables, sergeants and other officers, and adding any additional allowances per force.
  • Police staff and PCSO pay: Staff and PCSO pay is different for each force to take account of the local going rate. The going rate is calculated from a three-year average of regional median gross pay of ‘public administrators and defense’, compulsory social security. A three-year average has been used to smooth out the effect of any year-on-year volatility.
  • Non-pay costs: Office costs can vary from region to region. To take account of this, regional office costs have been compared with the national average and deducted pro-rata. Regional office costs are measured as average cost per full time equivalent (FTE) for Government offices.

All of the adjustments have been made to gross revenue expenditure (net revenue expenditure plus earned income) and calculated as a percentage. The adjustment percentage has then been applied to net revenue expenditure to give the adjusted force cost.

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Adjusted force cost – source of the data

Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA) Police Objective Analysis (POA): This is the data source for net revenue expenditure and national policing expenditure. Net revenue expenditure is made up of officer pay, police staff pay, PCSO pay and non-pay costs. 2014/15 estimates have been used. These data are outside the scope of National Statistics.

Home Office workforce data: These data have been used to provide the number of constables, sergeants and other officer full-time equivalents (FTEs) nationally, as the POA data do not provide these breakdowns. These figures are used to weight the differences to the national averages for Officer salaries. Data as at 31 March 2014 have been used. These data are National Statistics.

Office for National Statistics – Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings: These data are used for the median gross pay of ‘public administrators and defense’, compulsory social security, for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012.

Cabinet Office – State of the Estate report: This is the data source for the average cost per FTE for Government offices. Data for 2012/13 has been used. These data are outside the scope of National Statistics.

Police Oracle: This data source has been used for Police Officer salary information from April 2014.

Office of Manpower Economics: This data source has been used for Police Officer allowances per force, prior to April 2012.

Data anomalies

Cleveland Police and Essex Police provided some anomalous POA data for 2011/12. These related to finance and police authority costs respectively.

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Workforce numbers

The Crime and Policing Comparator’s Workforce numbers category includes force costs and staff pay costs.

Workforce – source of the data

Workforce – time period

Workforce – data quality

Force workforce and number of officers – definition

Full time equivalents (FTE) – definition

Data anomalies

Workforce – source of the data

Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy (CIPFA) Police Objective Analysis (POA) estimates for 2014/15, estimates for 2013/14, estimates for 2012/13 and estimates for 2011/12.

Estimated workforce data are budgeted workforce strength and, unlike actuals, may include staff posts for which there is a budget, but where the vacancy has yet to be filled.

POA data is a live data source that is continuously updated. The data used within the Crime and Policing Comparator have been taken from the database frozen in mid-October 2014. Forces had the opportunity to check and re-submit their data before this freeze.

These data are outside the scope of National Statistics.

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Workforce – time period

Workforce data have been provided for the financial years 2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15.

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Workforce – data quality

2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15 estimates data have been subject to a three-stage checking process. First, forces are required to reconcile their figures to their accounts and associated staff numbers; second, HMIC and CIPFA identify statistical outliers and highlight these to forces for amendment; and lastly, draft figures are provided to forces so that they can check for any unusual figures. Once these amendments are submitted, the database is frozen and that data is used.

Similarly, any data amendments made by forces after the update deadline may not be included – for the most up to date data please see http://www.cipfa.org

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Force workforce and number of officers – definition

Force workforce and number of officers do not include special constables.

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Full-time equivalents (FTE) – definition

The numbers of officers, PCSOs and police staff are shown as full time equivalents (FTE). An FTE is the number of hours that represent what a full time employee would work over a given time period, for example, a year or a pay period.

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Data anomalies

Some forces (such as Lincolnshire Police and Cleveland Police) have outsourced a number of functions. As a result, elements of their workforce data appear anomalous (because they are so low in comparison to other forces); however, they are an accurate reflection of their numbers.

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Published sources of police-recorded crime statistics for England and Wales

Police recorded crime statistics for England and Wales are available from a number of different published sources. The main sources are listed in the table below.

List of published sources of police-recorded crime statistics
Source Description
Official Statistics published by ONS Comprehensive quarterly statistical bulletins on crime. Including:
  • Detailed commentary
  • Long term trend data
  • Other sources of crime statistics

Home Office Open Data tablesData files containing police-recorded crime figures broken down by offence type, geography and time period. Intended to enable further analysis of data. HMIC Crime and Policing Comparator Presents charts comparing police-recorded crime data between all police forces in England and Wales.Compare your area data available on Police.ukPresents charts of police recorded crime at the local area level to enable comparisons between areas.Local crime maps available on the Police.uk websitePresents counts of police recorded crime at street level in the form of crime maps. Intended to provide in indication of recent levels of crime at the neighbourhood level.

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